The 2 Coronavirus Strain Affecting The World & All Recent Discovery, Studies You Need To Know About
What are the coronaviruses?
Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that vary significantly in risk. They can cause illness ranging from common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) which can kill more than 30% of those infected, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) and now the SARS-COV 2 (covid19) the pandemic we are currently facing.
Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans.
Human coronaviruses were first identified in the mid-1960s. The seven coronaviruses that can infect people are as follows :
(Common Human Viruses)
229E (alpha coronavirus)
NL63 (alpha coronavirus)
OC43 (beta coronavirus)
HKU1 (beta coronavirus)
Often harmless, cause symptoms of common cold and rarely cause severe pneumonia. People around the world commonly get infected with human coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1.
However, sometimes coronaviruses that infect animals can evolve and make people sick and become a new human coronavirus. Three recent examples of this are :
(Severe Human Virus)
SARS-CoV (the beta coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS) [was eradicated by intensive contact tracing and case isolation measures and no cases have been detected since 2004]
We will not go into detail about the corona virus family. You may click on each and read further to learn more. Right now we will focus on the COVID-19.
Spikes like projectile surrounding the spherical virus, from where the name coronavirus.
Derived from the Latin word corona, meaning "crown" or "halo", which refers to fatty outer layer, the envelope, with a crown or “corona” of club-shaped spikes on their surface.
Those spikes are allow enable attachment of the virus to the host cell surface, fuses the viral and host cell membranes therefore allowing infection to proceed.
COVID-19 is a new strain of the coronavirus (Cov) mentioned above, that was discovered in 2019 and has not been previously identified in humans ever before.
There is currently an estimate of 252,817 declared cases of COVID-19 that have been reported in 182 countries. With an 10,405 deaths till now and with 89,061 people having recovered from the disease. You can check live stats about the disease on worldometer.
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE CORONAVIRUS.
The official names of the Disease :
Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)
Name of the Virus :
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
The 2 strain of Covid-19 currently spreading around the world. L-COVID-19 and S-COVID-19.
Apparently there is not just one type of COVID-19 causing this pandemic.The Coronavirus has mutated into two separate strains since the outbreak began in December, according to Chinese scientists.
A recent study revealed that there are two main strain of the virus in circulation, which are causing worldwide infections.
The 2 Viral strain L-SARS-COV-2 and S-SARS-COV-2 was identified by a team of scientists from Peking University and Institute Pasteur of Shanghai study.
Among the 27 viral strains isolated from Wuhan before January 7, 2020. 26 were found to be L type, and only 1 was S type.
The study suggested that L type has a higher transmission rate than the S type. The L type transmits and replicates faster in human populations, making it a more progressive strain.
These two types of strains have a genetic difference of about 4%.
The team of experts from Beijing and Shanghai said 70 per cent of people have caught the most aggressive and contagious type of the virus, study claims.
How long does coronavirus stay alive in the open air or on packages?
The answer depends on different factors.
There isn't even a definite rule for how long a virus can survive outside of a host. However the type of surface and environmental temperature and humidity all contributes.
Below we’ll list results of some studies conducted and published in The new England journal of Medicine, to determine the lifespan of the virus in different environment materials
Post Aerosolization(that is in air) the virus remains viable in aerosols for up to 3 hours!
Cardboard. The virus seems to last up to 24 hours on cardboard material, 1 day.
Plastic materials, the virus is able to survive 48-72 hours. That is 2-3 days lifespan on plastic.
Stainless steel, the virus is able to survive 48-72 hours on stainless steel surface (2-3 days).
Copper material. The virus don’t seem to last more than 4 hours on copper surface(copper ions seems to disrupt the virus)
Possible Means Of Transmission of the CoronaVirus.
The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.
Between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 6 feet or 1.8m).
Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
Droplets of bodily fluids - such as saliva or mucus - from an infected person are dispersed in the air or on surfaces by coughing or sneezing.
These droplets can come into direct contact with other people or can infect those who pick them up by touching infected surfaces and then their face.
According to scientists, coughs and sneezes can travel several feet and stay suspended in the air for up to 10 minutes.
Transmission from contact with contaminated surfaces or objects
As we have seen above, how long can the virus live outside a human host. It is possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their mouth, nose, or their eyes.
Some people already carrying the virus but not showing any symptoms yet, may spread the disease. There have been reports of this occurring with this new coronavirus according to a research published in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Transmission by Fecal-Oral Route
Stool samples may contaminate hands, food, water, etc., then cause infection if the particles enter a person's mouth, nose, or eyes. For example, an infected patient could use the bathroom, forget to wash their hands or give only a cursory rinse, then touch a friend's hand. In medicine, this is known as fecal-oral transmission. Here is the complete research and studies published by the China CDC (center for Disease Control) about Fecal-Oral transmission route of Covid-19.
People already cured transmitting the virus to others
14% of patients discharged from hospital experienced a resurgence of the virus, although they had not infected any others.
These people having relapsed after being cured are spreading virus unknowingly to others around them.
Who are more at risk of the Corona Virus?
People over the age of 80 years are the most vulnerable, probably due to immune system weakening as we get older. Those with chronic diseases such as asthma, heart disease, diabetes and respiratory issues are also in danger of becoming seriously ill if they contract the virus.
The death rate starts to increase for those over 50 years of age.
Those under 50 years who are infected have a death rate of 0.2-0.4%.
50-59 years the death rate is 1.3%.
60-69 years it’s 3.6%,
70 to 79 year olds it’s 8.0%.
Those over 80 years of age it is 14.8%.
Children under nine years of age seem to be largely unaffected, either with no or mild symptoms. None have died as a result of the infection.
We will soon provide an article on the precautions to protect yourself from the coronavirus based on recent studies.
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